The longwall is a machine that has the ability to remove large volumes of coal in a single pass. The length of the pass can be 200 - 300m long. It consist of a few key elements;
Chocks - support the roof of the longwall area,
Shearer - cuts the coal through its rotating drums,
Armoured face conveyor (AFC) - directs the coal to the end of the pan line, where it is transported on conveyors to the surface.